"Investment banks" create loan agreements that cater to the needs of the investors whose funds they attempt to attract; "investors" are always sophisticated and accredited organizations not subject to bank regulatory supervision and the need to cater to the public trust. Investment banking activities are supervised by the SEC and their main focus is on whether the correct or proper disclosures are made to the parties who provide the funds.
The loan deferment process involves contacting the lender, submitting a deferment application, and undergoing the application process. The actual process can vary by lender. Other factors taken into account include the borrower's credit history, type of loan, and number of payments being deferred. Approval can take less than 24 hours to several weeks.
Loan agreements fall into two main types, according to the type of lender, and according to the type of facility. With respect to the type of lender, there are bilateral loans and syndicated loans. Syndicated loans are provided by groups of lenders, and their structuring and arrangement, as well as their administration, are carried out by more than one bank, commercial or investment ones, and the lending banks are also referred to as arrangers.
Private student Loans is another alternative that comes into force rescuing students who have a bad credit history. I have heard of many cases where students apply for loans as a supplement with their Stafford or Perkins loans. In other cases, I have seen people applying for student loans with private organizations when their Stafford loan amount comes to an end.